Spent some time looking around for the best solution to this problem. I think that it is best to download the 1.8GB installer from nvidia. Then execute something like the following:
./cuda_9.1.85_387.26_linux.run --no-drm --no-opengl-libs --extract=/home/ottch/Development/nvidia_cuda_9_1/ --toolkit --toolkitpath=/home/ottch/Development/nvidia_cuda_9_1/ --silent
Next you'll need to execute the cuda-linux .bin file that is generated in the toolkitpath by the last command. Ensure to set the prefix to something other than /usr/local/cuda-9.1 if you don't have sudo.